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Planning and scheduling procedures

Planning and scheduling procedures

The purpose of Management Planning Process procedures is to define the requirements for the planning and scheduling activity on projects. The objective is to develop plans and schedules and then to monitor,analyze, report and forecast performance in such a manner that projects are delivered on or
ahead of schedule.


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Planning and scheduling procedures

Planning and scheduling procedures

This objective of planning and scheduling procedures will be achieved if :

  • Planners/schedulers fully understand the scope of the project and are pro-active both in interpreting the Clients requirements and producing project schedules.
  • The project team effectively ‘buys-in’ and owns the project schedule.
  • Planning and scheduling information and documentation is produced which can be effectively utilized by project team members.
  • The schedule is pro-actively analysed & reviewed to identify any potential restraints to progress. Any restraints identified being reviewed with all appropriate project team members, including the Project Manager.
  • Any Specific project requirements should be identified and included in the Project Quality Plan
  • The objectives of the Global / Regional / Industry / Quality Systems are met
  • The Planning Manager is responsible for allocating planning resources, planning departmental budgetary control and maintenance of the quality procedures.


PLANNING DEFINITIONS:

Planning: The breakdown of work into its component events, and the
sequencing, resourcing and strategy of those events.

Scheduling: Detailed assignment of logic, duration & start/finish dates to
project activities, within the overall plan.

Schedule/ Programme: Pictorial or tabular representation of the time phased events or activities required to execute the project. May be based on a critical path network (CPN).

Critical Path Network (CPN):  A  representation  of activities and/or events with their inter-relationships and dependencies.

Milestone: An event selected for its importance in the project and/or
activity/deliverable.

Precedence Network: A network diagram in which the nodes symbolise the project
activities.

Productivity/Efficiency:  Ratio of hours earned versus hours expended.

Performance Measurement Baselines: The original project quality, HSE, budget & contract duration
objectives set by Management at Commencement.

PBS Project Breakdown Structures: – defines an hierarchical structure by which the work is to be done – can include structures for Work, Cost, Contract, Organisation, Risk, Resources etc.


PROGRESS MEASUREMENT:

The Planner/Scheduler is responsible for ensuring that the various progress measurements
used throughout the project are a fair representation of the actual project progress. As a
minimum, the following should be provided:

Studies/Engineering/Design: Actual % complete vs scheduled % complete. Work-hours expended vs budget work-hours. Productivity.Forecast work-hours at completion.

Procurement: Schedule of planned, actual and forecast order and delivery dates, summary of inquiry PO packages issued.

Contracts: Schedule of tender compilation and issue, tendering period, tender return, tender evaluation, award and completion dates for each construction contract package.

Construction: Actual %   complete vs scheduled % complete.


RESOURCE PLANNING

The Planner/Scheduler is also responsible for providing information to assist with the
management of resources required to execute the work. These tasks include, but are not
limited to:

At the earliest possible stage, using the best available data, by assessing the Scope of
Services and material quantities to provide management with an overall resource
overview of the project.

From the project approved budgets assess the quantities of major resources required,
issue discipline resource manpower requirement to Project Manager and Lead Discipline
Engineers and determine if the supply may be a limiting factor.

Where limitations occur pro-actively identify resolution by:

- co-ordinating and re-sequencing activities
- providing sufficient warning so that resources can be obtained
- Recommend other actions such as work sharing, sub-contracting, etc.

Provide and update forecasts of discipline manpower requirement and other facilities


INTERACTIVE PLANNING:

At various stages in each project, interactive planning sessions may be held with the Client
and the Project team (including, where relevant, sub-contractors, vendors and construction
contractors) with the intention of obtaining buy-in to the agreed schedule by all parties. This
is designed to facilitate the production of an integrated project schedule which highlights the
key constraints and major issues which impact successful execution. Alignment with key
execution strategies is essential. The main tool is a time phased wall mounted bar chart
which should be readily accessible to all parties involved in the project and can form the basis
of the detailed schedules as well as recording key risks, assumptions and opportunities.


TYPES OF SCHEDULE

The Planner/Scheduler must produce documents that help co-ordinate, inform and optimize
the schedule of a project. This can only be achieved if such documents are well thought out,
agreed with the Project Manager and Discipline Leads and issued in a timely fashion.

Each project should be examined and, along with the Project Manager, a determination made
as to which types of schedules will be appropriate. The schedules to be utilized shall be
stated in the Project Procedures.

Upon receipt of instructions to proceed with the project, and prior to the first issue of the
agreed Project Schedule, the project will be controlled with advanced 30 day or 60 day

project initiation action list / Start Up Schedule to ensure that early activities are identified and acted upon to protect the overall schedule. 

TYPES OF SCHEDULE

TYPES OF SCHEDULE

The following types of schedules have been categorized for convenience:

LEVEL 1 – MAJOR MILESTONE SCHEDULES

MAJOR MILESTONE SCHEDULES

MAJOR MILESTONE SCHEDULES

Purpose Generally used to summarise the overall project performance for
project management and client information purposes.

Typical Applications Proposals, at the planning stages of a major project, small studies,
engineering projects with a low level of complexity, few activities and
short duration, as a monthly summary of Level II and III schedules.

Contents Schedule shall identify contract milestones, significant engineering,
procurement, construction and operations milestones, other
significant milestones and/or constraints. Normally restricted to one
bar per discipline.

LEVEL II – INTERMEDIATE MILESTONE SCHEDULES

INTERMEDIATE MILESTONE SCHEDULES

INTERMEDIATE MILESTONE SCHEDULES

Purpose To inform groups of major constraints, due dates, manning levels,
progress achievement, etc. and the critical path.

Typical Applications Major proposals and studies, engineering projects with a medium
level of complexity, small construction projects, contract payment
milestones.

Contents Schedule will be a further breakdown of Level 1 reflecting major
activities for each phase i.e. engineering, procurement, construction
and commissioning.

Manpower histogram will indicate each phase manning
requirement.

Progress ‘S’ Curve for each phase will indicate schedule % complete
and actual % complete.

LEVEL III – DETAILED WORK SCHEDULES

Purpose To inform all disciplines as to the status and progress of individual
work packages, and of critical path issues.

Typical Applications On all complex engineering-only projects and all EPC projects. Also
on smaller projects where elements of the schedule are extremely
critical and, hence, need to be managed at this level.

Contents Schedule detailed into controllable and identifiable work activities
which can be “rolled-up” to Level II. The schedule should identify key
issue activities for deliverable types. The schedule will normally be
generated from precedence logic network with critical path identified

Typical Applications On all complex engineering-only projects and all EPC projects. Also
on smaller projects where elements of the schedule are extremely
critical and, hence, need to be managed at this level.

Contents Schedule detailed into controllable and identifiable work activities
which can be “rolled-up” to Level II. The schedule should identify key
issue activities for deliverable types. The schedule will normally be
generated from precedence logic network with critical path identified,
refer to Attachment 6.6 as typical which also includes a schedule
risk analysis example.

Layout/Format ‘S’ Curves will be generated (per discipline) to monitor scheduled vs
actual progress.

Manpower histograms will be produced to identify individual

Manpower histogram

Manpower histogram

discipline manning requirements.

Summary WBS Report – Document will be produced to provide an
overview of the project status. It will contain original work-hour
budget, unapproved change notices, approved change notices,
current budget, work-hours expended, % achieved, productivity
achieved, productivity to go, forecast work-hours to complete and
forecast work-hours at completion, refer to Attachment 6.7 as typical
of DD&E and Site Reports.

Display summary information on project notice board

Typical Analysis Typically at this level the schedule should be analysed for the top 5
critical paths and the current critical activities highlighted to the team.
The logic and durations within these critical paths should be
continually addressed to ensure schedule robustness.
Forecast man hours / productivity to go and resourcing levels should
be analysed for consistency
Trend analysis on key parameters e.g. Material deliveries to site,
pipe work productivity, schedule float usage etc

Timing/Frequency Update continually. To be issued monthly by the 5th working day
after the close-out date.

LEVEL IV – SCHEDULING STUDIES/LOOK-AHEADS ETC

Purpose To finitely manage aspects of the master schedule. To keep the
discipline leads and field personnel informed of upcoming tasks.

Typical Application On any project that has special scheduling needs defined by the
Project Controls Manager in the Project Procedures. Every
construction project that involves direct control of the labor.

Contents Scheduling of individual deliverable, drawings, data sheets,
specifications, line lists, requisitions, purchase orders, materials,
process systems, RoS / Forecast On Site Delivery Dates etc. within
the Level III activities etc. that may be necessary to properly manage
the project. This activity should be done by the individual disciplines.

Layout/Format As per the project needs. Two week look-ahead’s for field activities.
Display summary information on project notice boards

Timing/Frequency As required. Two week look-ahead’s are rolling every week and 

issued at least two working days before the first week and should be
reviewed at the progress meeting as to their viability.


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AUDITS / RECORDS

It is expected that, as part of the Quality System to maintain ISO accreditation, project will be
audited against this procedure on an annual basis. Non – conformances raised will be closed
out by the project planner & planning manager. The planning manager may require specific
audits more frequently.

The project detailed schedule is a quality record. Baseline data, schedule updates, key
changes to scope and methodology should all be recorded and kept within the filing and
document record system for subsequent contract requirements, post project close out &
reporting. The Project Close Out procedure requires an analysis of the key project
parameters for subsequent use on further projects and cost & schedule database upkeep of
metrics & benchmark data.


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