Mainly the Formwork function is to Supporting Structure, Scaffolding function is to arrangement for working plate forms, and Shoring function is for supporting method for unsafe structure.
Formwork,Scaffolding and Shoring Definition and productivity:
1- Form work:
Its is an artificial support provided below and around the precast or cast in situe concrete work.precast or cast in situe concrete work.
construction & casting is of prime importance in concrete industry. It share a significant amount of concrete cost. Form work is designed according to The ACI document SP-4.
Types of form work
– Steel form work
– Wooden form work
Steel formwork is made of
– steel sheets
– Angle Iron
– Tee Iron
Wooden form work consists of
– Planks battens
Removal timing is very important for a planning engineer, Time of form work removal depends on the following factors:
1. Type of Cement
Rapid hardening cements require lesser time as compared to
OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement)
2. Ratio of concrete mix
Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to weak
3. Weather condition
Hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as
compared to cold and humid weather conditions.
Time of Removal of form work:
For normal works cost of formwork is about 30%-40%of
the concrete cost.
For special works cost of form work is about 50%-60%of
the concrete cost.
It’s a temporary structure to provide a platform at different levels of a building for workers and Materials.
Types of Scaffolding
1. Single Scaffolds
It consists of Standards (v – Standards (v posts)(10 cm) Putlogs (7.5 x 7.5), Ledgers Wooden boards Braces Used for ordinary buildings
2. Double Scaffolds
It consists of Two rows of standards. 15 cm, 1.5 m Shores are provided.Used for superior works
3. Ladder Scaffolds
It consists of Brackets for Plate form.
4. Cantilever Scaffolds
It consists of Cantilever,Struts, Standards, Putlogs and Plate forms. It is used above ground level
5. Suspended Scaffolds
It consists of Ropes, Working platforms,Ropes can be raised Manually or mechanically Used for light construction and finishing works of multistory buildings.
6. Steel or Tubular Scaffolds
It consists of Steel tubes (1-1/2” –2-1/2” diameter) Coupler or Clamps (to hold pipes in different positions) Prop nuts (to hold single pipes) Bolts, Nuts & washers Wedge & Clip
it is the method of providing temporary support (shores) to an unsafe structure.
Types of Shoring
Horizontal shoring or flying shoring
It consists of Dead shores,Sole plates, Needles, Props Used for rebuilding of walls.
Vertical shoring or dead shoring
It consists of Rackers, Needles,Cleats, Braces and Sole plate
Used to strengthen a wall.
Shuttering Carpenter productivity :
Form work-Footings, foundations, ground 8 m2 / day.
Form work-Columns, pedestals 6 m2/day.
Form work-Beams and slabs 8 m2/day
Form work-Tie beams, arches, lintels 5 m2/day
Form work-Walls 8 m2 / day
Form work-Circular, special shapes 4 m2/day
Form work- Making timber shutters 8 m2/day